Designing MenuCarlo's Backend Architecture

MenuCarlo is an open-source web app which helps F&B owners optimize their menus by analyzing their past customer transactions. During my internship at AI Singapore, I was appointed lead developer of this project. Our goal is to empower small F&B establishments by putting the power of data science in their hands.

This rundown of MenuCarlo's backend architecture will also contain the reasons behind each decision, and our key takeaways. I hope this overview can help you choose the right technologies for your own backend.


MenuCarlo's backend is built with Django for 3 main reasons.

  1. Python. Python is our team's language of choice, since we come from a data science background.
  2. Support for Data Science. MenuCarlo has a strong data science focus. Building our backend in Python gives us access its rich ecosystem.
  3. Django's "batteries included" philosophy. Since MenuCarlo is a full-fledged web app, complete with a relational database, task scheduling and authentication, Django's neat default tools saves us a ton of development time.

We chose to decouple backend and frontend to support a more dynamic frontend. The Django's template language is unsuitable for the kind of experience we are looking for.

Django Rest Framework

Django Rest Framework can be considered the de-facto library to use for building API's with Django. It is so widely used it might as well be an official part of Django. But this is for good reason.

CRUD operations are unbelievably simple with DRF. Imagine you have the following in your

class Data(models.Model):
    user = models.ForeignKey(User, on_delete=models.CASCADE, related_name="analytics")
    start_date = models.DateField()
    end_date = models.DateField()
    data = models.JSONField()

Implementing a set of CRUD APIs for Analytics is literally 4 lines of code.

class DataViewSet(viewsets.ModelViewSet):
    queryset = Data.objects.all()
    serializer_class = DataSerializer
    permission_classes = [IsAuthenticated]

My goal here is just to illustrate the power of DRF's abstractions. This series of tutorials provide a solid introduction to DRF.

Even simple, static APIs can take advantage of DRF, since DRF's permissions classes give us easy control over who can access the API.

from rest_framework.decorators import api_view, permission_classes
from rest_framework.permissions import IsAuthenticated
from rest_framework.response import Response

def print_hello_world(request):
    return Response('hello world')

The api_view decorator tells DRF this function is an API, while the permission_classes function tells DRF only authenticated users can access the function. The authentication itself is handled by Django.

DRF gives developers the flexibility to write custom APIs, while abstracting away unnecessary details.

JWT Authentication

The textbook answer for using JWT (JSON Web Tokens) is its scalability. I chose JWT simply to learn a new technology. Besides, for our purposes, both JWT and cookie auth will work just fine.

Simple JWT is a plugin for Django Rest Framework. Just like DRF, SimpleJWT is really easy-to-use, with little to no configuration required. We stuck with the default expirations of 5 minutes and 1 day for access and refresh token respectively. This guide is comprehensive enough for nearly all use cases.

For proper separation of concerns, we created an accounts app within Django solely for handling authentication.



We chose a relational database instead of a non-relational one due to the nature of our data. Besides general user information (i.e. username and password), we need to store analytics results, business information and data. While a non-relational DB might be easier in the early stages, it will become a bottleneck once the application becomes more complex.

Django's ORM has strong support for PostgreSQL. While PostgreSQL is largely similar to other relational databases, Django ORM supports most of PostgreSQL's unique features, such as JSONField. We use JSONField quite extensively to store small blocks of data, such as analytics results.

Amazon S3

We use AWS S3 to store our users' historical transactions data. django-storages supports S3 and it handles most configurations out-of-the-box. A useful feature of S3 is its caching. Since large data files may need to be pulled repeatedly, this caching layer saves a lot of time.

In our use case, we only needed to configure the default file storage method to S3 in The steps are outlined here.

The selection of S3 is simply because of our prior experience with it. Alternative solutions such as Azure Storage are likely equally functional. I believe any well-established cloud storage solution will work with 99% of projects.

Periodic Tasks

Periodic Tasks is an integral part of MenuCarlo's backend. We extract new transactions data from Square every 12 hours to keep our analytics and simulations up-to-date.


We chose Celery and Redis because of their popularity in the Django ecosystem. Considering our use case is rather typical, it makes sense to go for a well-established option. django-celery-beat helps us schedule our periodic tasks using PostgreSQL.

However, working with Celery can be a bit of a hassle. Spinning up django-celery-beat must be done separately. The following commands must run simultaneously. (Note that this only applies to Windows users)

$ web: gunicorn (project_name).wsgi --log-file -
$ worker: celery -A (project_name) worker --beat --events --loglevel=INFO

When using Heroku for hosting, periodic tasks will be executed using Worker Dynos, which works perfectly fine. However, Heroku's free tier does not work well because the instance shuts down after 30 minutes. While the instance is sleeping, it does not 'wake itself up' when a task is scheduled. So you will probably need at least a Hobby plan ($7/month).

Next Steps

The backend's architecture is quite comprehensive, considering its integrations with multiple external services (e.g. Amazon S3 and Square). But what are the next steps?

Implementing Tests

Due to the tight deadline of our project, we didn't have time to implement testing. While CRUD-based operations basically do not need tests, since it would become more like testing the framework rather than our own code, the periodic tasks need to be be tested.

What happens if Square's API is down? What happens if the task failed to execute for whatever reason? These situations need to be accounted for in production. Which brings me to my next point...

Error Tracking

Currently, errors faced by users are not logged by us. This could become a problem, since bugs would take longer to be discovered. We also do not have real-time traffic monitoring. Considering the importance of our periodic tasks, it is important that we are notified of failed tasks.

We could consider using a solution like Sentry, which is highly recommended in the Django community. Email notifications can be handled by Amazon SNS.